Dogs + Diagnosis

  • Antibody titers are sometimes needed to diagnose disease. Antibody titers reflect the level of antibody that the pet has made in response to exposure to a certain infectious organism. The titer is determined by sequentially diluting the serum and testing it against the organism in question. The more dilute the serum when it stops producing a positive reaction, the higher the concentration of antibodies present in the blood. Titers give support to a diagnosis, allowing more targeted treatment and more specific prognostic information, as well as identifying zoonotic disease (diseases transmissible between animals and humans).

  • This handout discusses arthroscopy, the insertion of a telescope-like camera into a joint. The joints commonly examined and treated using this technique, along with the benefits and risks of this procedure, are outlined.

  • Bile acids are compounds that are made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder and help with digestion of foods. The bile acid test is a very useful test that helps to determine if the liver is working properly. An abnormal bile acid test result indicates there is a problem in the liver, but it does not provide information about the cause, severity, or reversibility of the problem. Further testing is required to investigate the problem.

  • Bone marrow is vitally important for the production of blood cells, specifically red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Bone marrow is commonly collected and examined when abnormalities are found in the circulating blood. Bone marrow examination is complicated and should be done by a specialist. The pathologist’s report typically provides information about the health of the marrow, what types of cells are present, whether abnormal cells are found, and other details that may help to explain the patient’s illness. However, in some cases, bone marrow examination may do nothing more than confirm that there is a problem.

  • The fastest way to examine large numbers of white blood cells is to look at a buffy coat smear. One of the most important cells to look for in a buffy coat is called a mast cell. Mast cells play an important role in allergies and related conditions.

  • Coagulation is the series of events that result in the formation of a clot. In the body, coagulation occurs after any injury to a blood vessel or tissue, in order to stop bleeding. Some breeds of dogs are known to have a higher incidence of clotting factor deficiencies and with these breeds, coagulation tests may be used for screening purposes prior to diagnostic or surgical procedures.

  • A Coombs’ test is used to test for a disease called autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IMHA). IMHA is a condition where the immune system breaks down or destroys red blood cells, leading to anemia. The test detects the presence of immunoglobulins (antibodies) on the surface of red blood cells. Taken together, the physical findings and the laboratory data (such as a Coombs’ test) may suggest that immune-mediated destruction of red blood cells is the most likely cause of your pet's anemia.

  • Cushing's disease, or hyperadrenocorticism, is the overproduction of cortisol hormone by a dog's body. Several initial tests help to diagnose this condition. The clinical signs of Cushing's disease are similar, regardless of the underlying cause of the disease. However, it is essential to identify the type of Cushing's disease as the treatment and prognosis differ slightly depending upon the form of the disease.

  • Cytology is a useful tool to often diagnose abnormal lumps on your pet's body as well as evaluation of fluid samples and tissue surfaces. It is relatively simple and inexpensive but can provide a lot of information. Depending on results, further tests may be indicated to best help your pet.

  • Cytology is the microscopic examination of cells that have been collected from the body. Lesions on the surface of the skin or from moist body cavities can be sampled very simply by scraping, swabbing, flushing, or making impressions of the tissue. The collected cells get looked at under a microscope and in many cases a diagnosis can be made to determine the best form of treatment.